Book of the dead ka

book of the dead ka

The statement of the Tibetan Book of the Dead, that motivated me most, adaptation of the illustrious Tibetan Book of the Dead, which he .. . Decke die Geheimnisse des alten Ägyptens auf und sichere dir die verborgene Reichtümer. Das Beste: Mit der Mystery-Win-Funktion können deine Gewinne. Decke die Geheimnisse des alten Ägyptens auf und sichere dir die verborgene Reichtümer. Das Beste: Mit der Mystery-Win-Funktion können deine Gewinne.

The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required.

For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.

The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice. Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.

If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.

The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society. For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.

The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.

The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.

Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later. The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.

The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.

Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.

From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.

Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.

Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.

The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf.

Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.

The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qur'an.

In Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch.

He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The work of E.

Wallis Budge , Birch's successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation — including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations of the Papyrus of Ani , though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date.

Allen and Raymond O. Orientverlag has released another series of related monographs, Totenbuchtexte , focused on analysis, synoptic comparison, and textual criticism.

Research work on the Book of the Dead has always posed technical difficulties thanks to the need to copy very long hieroglyphic texts.

Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. In the midth century, hieroglyphic fonts became available and made lithographic reproduction of manuscripts more feasible.

In the present day, hieroglyphics can be rendered in desktop publishing software and this, combined with digital print technology, means that the costs of publishing a Book of the Dead may be considerably reduced.

However, a very large amount of the source material in museums around the world remains unpublished. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Book of the Dead disambiguation. List of Book of the Dead spells. The ancient Egyptian books of the afterlife.

How to Read the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Dedi Djadjaemankh Rededjet Ubaoner. Despite these similarities, the Ba is not completely interchangeable with the concept of the soul.

If an Egyptian believed that there was divine intervention with an event, it would be stated that the Bau of the deity was at work. This also tied into the Pharaohs, as many of them were believed to be the Ba of a deity.

This demonstrates the importance that the Ba played within Ancient Egyptian society and culture. The Ba was seen as an aspect of humans that lived after the body died.

It was depicted as a bird with a human head often flying out of the tomb of the deceased. At times, the Ba was shown in corporeal form eating and drinking in texts.

The Ba had an important relationship with the Ka, one that was of immense importance for the Ancient Egyptians. Where the Ba was seen as the part that lives on after death, the Ka was seen as being related to life itself.

The Ka is the differing factor between the living and the dead as the Ka leaves the body upon death. Egyptians believed that the Ka required sustenance from food and drink.

This provided an explanation as to why humans needed to eat and drink to continue on living. They also believed the Ka required sustenance after death, so offerings of food would be left out for the deceased.

Since the Ka would then be lacking a material form, it fed upon the Kau, not the actual food itself, leaving behind the physical aspect of the offering.

This played an important role in the afterlife; therefore, tying into the funeral rites and processes of Ancient Egypt.

During the preparations of the body after death, one of the most important things done was the opening of the mouth. Being able to leave the body, the Ba could reunite with the Ka to form what was known as the Akh.

This was only possible if the funeral rites were performed correctly and this process was of utmost importance to the Egyptians.

The Egyptians believed that this reunification could go awry if they were not careful. This caused them to develop literature which provided guidelines into the afterlife such as The Coffin Texts and The Book of the Dead.

The entire process of the funeral rites, offerings and the reunification, were known as Se-akh. However, the Ancient Egyptian concept of the afterlife was very different from that of other cultures.

It was based on one of their myths that involved Osiris. It was believed that each night the sun set and descended down into the underworld, Duat.

While in the underworld, the sun would meet with the mummified Osiris. The two would then be energized by the presence of the other, allowing both to rise again the next day.

Book of the dead ka -

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In the Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was essential to surviving death in the nether world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor.

According to the Text of the Book of Breathings ,. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and the deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony.

If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat , it was immediately consumed by the monster Ammit , and the soul became eternally restless.

The Egyptians believed that Khnum created the bodies of children on a potter's wheel and inserted them into their mothers' bodies.

This resembles the concept of spirit in other religions. Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents.

Through this association, statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as shadows. The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis , and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black.

Little is known about the Egyptian interpretation of this portion of the soul. As a part of the soul, a person's rn r n 'name' was given to them at birth and the Egyptians believed that it would live for as long as that name was spoken, which explains why efforts were made to protect it and the practice of placing it in numerous writings.

It is a person's identity, their experiences, and their entire life's worth of memories. For example, part of the Book of Breathings , a derivative of the Book of the Dead , was a means to ensure the survival of the name.

A cartouche magical rope often was used to surround the name and protect it. Conversely, the names of deceased enemies of the state, such as Akhenaten , were hacked out of monuments in a form of damnatio memoriae.

Sometimes, however, they were removed in order to make room for the economical insertion of the name of a successor, without having to build another monument.

The greater the number of places a name was used, the greater the possibility it would survive to be read and spoken. It was associated with thought, but not as an action of the mind; rather, it was intellect as a living entity.

In this sense, it even developed into a sort of ghost or roaming dead being when the tomb was not in order any more during the Twentieth Dynasty.

It could be invoked by prayers or written letters left in the tomb's offering chapel also in order to help living family members, e.

Ceremonies conducted by priests after death, including the " opening of the mouth wp r ", aimed not only to restore a person's physical abilities in death, but also to release a Ba 's attachment to the body.

Egyptians conceived of an afterlife as quite similar to normal physical existence — but with a difference.

The model for this new existence was the journey of the Sun. At night the Sun descended into the Duat or "underworld".

Eventually the Sun meets the body of the mummified Osiris. Osiris and the Sun, re-energized by each other, rise to new life for another day.

For the deceased, their body and their tomb were their personal Osiris and a personal Duat. For this reason they are often addressed as "Osiris".

The Book of the Dead , the collection of spells which aided a person in the afterlife, had the Egyptian name of the Book of going forth by day.

They helped people avoid the perils of the afterlife and also aided their existence, containing spells to ensure "not dying a second time in the underworld", and to "grant memory always" to a person.

In the Egyptian religion it was possible to die in the afterlife and this death was permanent. Being able to leave the body, the Ba could reunite with the Ka to form what was known as the Akh.

This was only possible if the funeral rites were performed correctly and this process was of utmost importance to the Egyptians. The Egyptians believed that this reunification could go awry if they were not careful.

This caused them to develop literature which provided guidelines into the afterlife such as The Coffin Texts and The Book of the Dead.

The entire process of the funeral rites, offerings and the reunification, were known as Se-akh. However, the Ancient Egyptian concept of the afterlife was very different from that of other cultures.

It was based on one of their myths that involved Osiris. It was believed that each night the sun set and descended down into the underworld, Duat.

While in the underworld, the sun would meet with the mummified Osiris. The two would then be energized by the presence of the other, allowing both to rise again the next day.

The Egyptians believed that each person followed a similar cycle. The mummy was a representative of Osiris, which made preservation of the body important.

The tomb where the mummy was kept was a personal Duat. The Ba would descend into the tomb each night much like the sun, and would return to the physical body.

Each morning it would depart to once again join with the Ka. The cycle that the Ba went through was the journey of the sun. As mentioned before, when combined, the Ba and Ka would form an entity known as the Akh.

Thou art the chief and prince of thy brethren, thou art the prince of the company of the gods, thou stablishest right and truth everywhere, thou placest thy son upon thy throne, thou art the object of praise of thy father Seb, and of the love of thy mother Nut.

Thou art exceeding mighty, thou overthrowest those who oppose thee, thou art mighty of hand, and thou slaughterest thine 10 enemy.

Thou settest thy fear in thy foe, thou removest his boundaries, thy heart is fixed, and thy feet are watchful. Thou art the heir of Seb and the sovereign of all the earth;.

Seb hath seen thy glorious power, and hath commanded thee to direct the 11 universe for ever and ever by thy hand. Thou shinest in the horizon, thou sendest forth thy light into the darkness, thou makest the darkness light with thy double plume, and thou floodest the world with light like the 13 Disk at break of day.

Thy diadem pierceth heaven and becometh a brother unto the stars, O thou form of every god. Thou art gracious in command and in speech, thou art the favoured one of the great company of the gods, and thou art the greatly beloved one of the lesser company of the gods.

The glorious Isis was perfect in command and in speech, and she avenged her brother. She overshadowed him with her feathers, she made wind with her wings, and she uttered cries at the burial of her brother.

Literally, "she alighted not,"; the whole passage here justifies Plutarch's statement De Iside Osiride , 16 concerning Isis: Later in the XVIIIth, or early in the XIXth dynasty, we find Osiris called "the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who traverseth millions of years in the duration of his life, the firstborn son of the womb of Nut, begotten of Seb, the prince of gods and men, the god of gods, the king of kings, the lord of lords, the prince of princes, the governor of the world, from the womb of Nut, whose existence is for everlasting,[1] Unnefer of many forms and of many attributes, Tmu in Annu, the lord of Akert,[2] the only one, the lord of the land on each side of the celestial Nile.

He is called "the soul that liveth again,"[6] "the being who becometh a child again," "the firstborn son of unformed matter, the lord of multitudes of aspects and forms, the lord of time and bestower of years, the lord of life for all eternity.

The text of this work, transcribed into hieroglyphics, was published, with a Latin translation, by Brugsch, under the title, Sai an Sinsin sive Aber Metempsychosis veterum Aegyptiorum , Berlin, ; and an English translation of the same work, but made from a Paris MS.

The hieratic text of this work is published with a French translation by p. The ideas and beliefs which the Egyptians held in reference to a future existence are not readily to be defined, owing to the many difficulties in translating religious texts and in harmonizing the statements made in different works of different periods.

Some confusion of details also seems to have existed in the minds of the Egyptians themselves, which cannot be cleared up until the literature of the subject has been further studied and until more texts have been published.

That the Egyptians believed in a future life of some kind is certain; and the doctrine of eternal existence is the leading feature of their religion, and is enunciated with the utmost clearness in all periods.

Whether this belief had its origin at Annu, the chief city of the worship of the sun-god, is not certain, but is very probable; for already in the pyramid texts we find the idea of everlasting life associated with the sun's existence, and Pepi I.

To this end all the religious literature of Egypt was composed. Let us take the following extracts from texts of the VIth dynasty as illustrations: Recueil Travaux , t.

The context runs "Thy Sceptre is in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto the living ones. The Mekes and Nehbet sceptres are in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto those whose abodes are secret.

In the papyrus of Ani the deceased is represented as having come to a place remote and far away, where there is neither air to breathe nor water to drink, but where he holds converse with Tmu.

In answer to his question, "How long have I to live? In the LXXXIVth Chapter, as given in the same papyrus, the infinite duration of the past and future existence of the soul, as well as its divine nature, is proclaimed by Ani in the words: When the deceased identifies himself with Shu, he makes the period of his existence coeval with that of Tmu-Ra, i.

But while we have this evidence of the Egyptian belief in eternal life, we are nowhere told that man's corruptible body will rise again; indeed, the following extracts show that the idea prevailed that the body lay in the earth while the soul or spirit lived in heaven.

There is, however, no doubt that from first to last the Egyptians firmly believed that besides the soul there was some other element of the man that would rise again.

The preservation of the corruptible body too was in some way connected with the life in the world to come, and its preservation was necessary to ensure eternal life; otherwise the prayers recited to this end would have been futile, and the time honoured custom of mummifying the dead would have had no meaning.

The never ending existence of the soul is asserted in a passage quoted above without reference to Osiris; but the frequent mention of the uniting of his bones, and of the gathering together of his members,[3] and the doing away with all corruption from his body, seems to show that the pious Egyptian connected these things with the resurrection of his own body in some form, and he argued that what had been done for him who was proclaimed to be giver and source of life must be necessary for mortal man.

The physical body of man considered as a whole was called khat , a word which seems to be connected with the idea of something which is liable to decay.

The word is also applied to the mummified body in the tomb, as we know from the words "My body khat is buried. Already in the pyramid texts we have "Rise up, O thou Teta!

Thou hast received thy head, thou hast knitted together thy bones, thou hast collected thy members. As we have seen above, the body neither leaves the tomb nor reappears on earth; yet its preservation was necessary.

Thus the deceased addresses Tmu[2]: I am whole, even as my father Khepera was whole, who is to me the type of that which passeth not away.

Come then, O Form, and give breath unto me, O lord of breath, O thou who art greater than thy compeers. Stablish thou me, and form thou me, O thou who art lord of the grave.

Grant thou to me to endure for ever, even as thou didst grant unto thy father Tmu to endure; and his body neither passed away nor decayed.

I have not done that which is hateful unto thee, nay, I have spoken that which thy ka loveth: Homage to thee, O my father Osiris, thy flesh suffered no decay, there were no worms in thee, thou didst not crumble away, thou didst not wither away, thou didst not become corruption and worms; and I myself am Khepera, I shall possess my flesh for ever and ever, I shall not decay, I shall not crumble away, I shall not wither away, I shall not become corruption.

But the body does not lie in the tomb inoperative, for by the prayers and ceremonies on the day of burial it is endowed with the power of changing into a sahu , or spiritual body.

Thus we have such phrases as, "I germinate like the plants,"[3] "My flesh germinateth,"[4] "I exist, I exist, I live, I live, I germinate, I germinate,"[5] "thy soul liveth, thy body germinateth by the command of Ra.

This chapter was found inscribed upon one of the linen wrappings of the mummy of Thothmes III. The body which has become a sahu has the power of associating with the soul and of holding converse with it.

In this form it can ascend into heaven and dwell with the gods, and with the sahu of the gods, and with the souls of the righteous.

In the pyramid texts we have these passages: Recueil de Travaux , t. From line of the same text it would seem that a man had more than one sahu , for the words "all thy sahu ," occur.

This may, however, be only a plural of majesty. In the late edition of the Book of the Dead published by Lepsius the deceased is said to " look upon his body and to rest upon his sahu ,"[4] and souls are said "to enter into their sahu ";[5] and a passage extant both in this and the older Theban edition makes the deceased to receive the sahu of the god Osiris.

In close connection with the natural and spiritual bodies stood the heart, or rather that part of it which was the seat of the power of life and the fountain of good and evil thoughts.

And in addition to the natural and spiritual bodies, man also bad an abstract individuality or personality endowed with all his characteristic attributes.

This abstract personality had an absolutely independent existence. It could move freely from place to place, separating itself from, or uniting itself to,.

The funeral offerings of meat, cakes, ale, wine, unguents, etc. The ka dwelt in the man's statue just as the ka of a god inhabited the statue of the god.

In this respect the ka seems to be identical with the sekhem or image. In the remotest times the tombs had special chambers wherein the ka was worshipped and received offerings.

The priesthood numbered among its body an order of men who bore the name of "priests of the ka and who performed services in honour of the ka in the " ka chapel".

In the text of Unas the deceased is said to be "happy with his ka"[2] in the next world, and his ka is joined unto his body in "the great dwelling"; [3] his body.

The first scholar who seriously examined the meaning of the word was Dr. In September, , V. In March, , Mr. Renouf read a paper entitled "On the true sense of an important Egyptian word" Trans.

Maspero; and in September of the same year M. Maspero again treated the subject in Recueil de Travaux , t. The various shades of meaning in the word have been discussed subsequently by Brugsch, Wörterbuch Suppl.

The ka , as we have seen, could eat food, and it was necessary to provide food for it. In the XIIth dynasty and in later periods the gods are entreated to grant meat and drink to the ka of the deceased; and it seems as if the Egyptians thought that the future welfare of the spiritual body depended upon the maintenance of a constant supply of sepulchral offerings.

When circumstances rendered it impossible to continue the material supply of food, the ka fed upon the offerings painted on the walls of the tomb, which were transformed into suitable nourishment by means of the prayers of the living.

When there were neither material offerings nor painted similitudes to feed upon, it seems as if the ka must have perished; but the texts are not definite on this point.

May I have my mouth that I may speak therewith like the followers of Horus, may I come forth to heaven, may I descend to earth, may I never be shut out upon the road, may there never be done unto me that which my soul abhorreth, let not my soul be imprisoned, but may I be among the venerable and favoured ones, may I plough my lands in the Field of Aaru, may I arrive at the Field of Peace, may one come out to me with vessels of ale and cakes and bread of the lords of eternity, may I receive meat from the altars of the great, I the ka of the prophet Amsu.

To that part of man which beyond all doubt was believed to enjoy an eternal existence in heaven in a state of glory, the Egyptians gave the name ba , a word which means something like "sublime," "noble," and which has always hitherto been translated by "soul.

It revisited the body in the tomb and re-animated it, and conversed with it; it could take upon itself any shape that it pleased; and it had the power of passing into heaven and of dwelling with the perfected souls there.

As the ba was closely associated with the ka , it partook of the funeral offerings, and in one aspect of its existence at least it was liable to decay if not properly and sufficiently nourished.

In the pyramid texts the permanent dwelling place of the ba or soul is heaven with the gods, whose life it shares. In connection with the ka and ba must be mentioned the khaibit or shadow of the man, which the Egyptians regarded as a part of the human economy.

It was supposed to have an entirely independent existence and to be able to separate itself from the body; it was free to move wherever it pleased, and, like the ka and ba , it partook of the funeral offerings in the tomb, which it visited at will.

The mention of the shade, whether of a god or man, in the pyramid texts is unfrequent, and it is not easy to ascertain what views were held concerning it; but from the passage in the text of Unas,[2] where it is mentioned together with the souls and spirits and bones of the gods, it is evident that already at that early date its position in relation to man was well defined.

From the collection of illustrations which Dr. Birch appended to his paper On the Shade or Shadow of the Dead ,[3] it is quite clear that in later times at least the shadow was always associated with the soul and was believed to be always near it; and this view is.

Another important and apparently eternal part of man was the khu , which, judging from the meaning of the word, may be defined as a "shining" or translucent, intangible casing or covering of the body, which is frequently depicted in the form of a mummy.

For want of a better word khu has often been translated "shining one," "glorious," "intelligence," and the like, but in certain cases it may be tolerably well rendered by "spirit.

Thus it is said, "Unas standeth with the khu's ,"[3] and one of the gods is asked to "give him his sceptre among the khu's ; "[4] when the souls of the gods enter into Unas, their khu's are with and round about him.

And again, when the god Khent-mennut-f has transported the king to heaven, the god Seb, who rejoices to meet him, is said to give him both hands and welcome him as a brother and to nurse him and to place him among the imperishable khu's.

Yet another part of a man was supposed to exist in heaven, to which the Egyptians gave the name sekhem.

The word has been rendered by "power," "form," and the like, but it is very difficult to find any expression which will represent the Egyptian conception of the sekhem.

It is mentioned in connection with the soul and khu , as will be seen from the following passages from the pyramid texts. A name of Ra was[3] sekhem ur , the "Great Sekhem," and Unas is identified with him and called: Finally, the name, ren , of a man was believed to exist in heaven, and.

Thus, as we have seen, the whole man consisted of a natural body, a spiritual body, a heart, a double, a soul, a shadow, an intangible ethereal casing or spirit, a form, and a name.

All these were, however, bound together inseparably, and the welfare of any single one of them concerned the welfare of all.

For the well-being of the spiritual parts it was necessary to preserve from decay the natural body; and. The texts are silent as to the time when the immortal part began its beatified existence; but it is probable that the Osiris[2] of a man only attained to the full enjoyment of spiritual happiness after the funeral ceremonies had been duly per formed and the ritual recited.

Comparatively few particulars are known of the manner of life of the soul in heaven, and though a number of interesting facts may be gleaned from the texts of all periods, it is very difficult to harmonize them.

This result is due partly to the different views held by different schools of thought in ancient Egypt, and partly to the fact that on some points the Egyptians them selves seem to have had no decided opinions.

We depend upon the pyramid texts for our knowledge of their earliest conceptions of a future life. The life of the Osiris of a man in heaven is at once material and spiritual and it seems as if the Egyptians never succeeded in breaking away from their very ancient habit of confusing the things of the body with the things of the soul.

They believed in an incorporeal and immortal part of man, the constituent elements of which flew to heaven after death and embalmment; yet the theologians of the VIth dynasty had decided that there was some part of the deceased which could only mount to heaven by means of a ladder.

In the pyramid of Teta it is said, "When Teta hath purified himself on the borders of this earth where Ra hath purified himself, he prayeth and setteth up the ladder, and those who dwell in the great place press Teta forward with their hands.

The Osiris consisted of all the spiritual parts of a man gathered together in a form which resembled him exactly. Whatever honour was paid to the mummified body was received by its Osiris, the offerings made to it were accepted by its Osiris, and the amulets laid upon it were made use of by its Osiris for its own protection.

The sahu , the ka , the ba , the khu , the khaibit , the sekhem , and the ren were in primeval times separate and independent parts of man's immortal nature; but in the pyramid texts they are welded together, and the dead king Pepi is addressed as "Osiris Pepi.

In the pyramid of Unas it is said, "Ra setteth upright the ladder for Osiris, and Horus raiseth up the ladder for his father Osiris, when Osiris goeth to [find] his soul; one standeth on the one side, and the other standeth on the other, and Unas is betwixt them.

Unas standeth up and is Horus, he sitteth down and is Set. This Pepi is thy son, this Pepi is Horus, thou hast given birth unto this Pepi even as thou hast given birth unto the god who is the lord of the Ladder.

Thou hast given him the Ladder of God, and thou hast given him the Ladder of Set, whereon this Pepi hath gone forth into heaven.

Every khu and every god stretcheth out his hand unto this Pepi when he cometh forth into heaven by the Ladder of God.

Pepi hath gathered together his bones, he hath collected his flesh, and Pepi hath gone straightway into heaven by means of the two fingers of the god who is the Lord of the Ladder.

When the Osiris of a man has entered into heaven as a living soul,[4] he is regarded as one of those who "have eaten the eye of Horus he walks among.

Moreover, his body as a whole is identified with the God of Heaven. For example it is said concerning Unas: Further, this identification of the deceased with the God of Heaven places him in the position of supreme ruler.

For example, we have the prayer that Unas "may rule the nine gods and complete the company of the nine gods,"[1] and Pepi I. Again, the deceased is changed into Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis.

It is said of Pepi I. When Pepi standeth upon the north of heaven with Ra, he becometh lord of the universe like unto the king of the gods.

The place of the deceased in heaven is by the side of God[11] in the most holy place,[12] and he becomes God and an angel of God;[13] he himself is triumphant,[14].

A somewhat different view of the signification of maakheru is given by Virey Tombeau de Rekhmara, Paris, , p. The offerings which were painted on the walls of the tomb were actually enjoyed by the deceased in his new state of being.

The Egyptians called them " per kheru ," that is to say, " the things which the word or the demand made to appear ," or " per hru kheru ," that is to say, " the things which presented themselves at the word " or " at the demand " of the deceased.

The deceased was then called " maa kheru ," that is to say, " he who realizes his word ," or " he who realizes while he speaks ," or " whose voice or demand realizes ," or " whose voice or demand makes true, or makes to be really and actually " that which only appears in painting on the walls of the tomb.

It is possible that maa-kheru may mean simply "blessed. He goes round about heaven even as they do, and he partakes of their food of figs and wine.

Those who would be hostile to the deceased become thereby foes of the god Tmu, and all injuries inflicted on him are inflicted on that god;[1] he dwells without fear under the protection of the gods,[2] from whose loins he has come forth.

His calamities are brought to an end, for Unas hath been purified with the Eye of Horus; the calamities of Unas have been done away by Isis and Nephthys.

Unas is in heaven, Unas is in heaven, in the form of air, in the form of air; he perisheth not, neither doth anything which is in him perish.

Those who row Ra up into the heavens row him also, and those who row Ra beneath the horizon row him also. Thy soul is with thee in thy body, thy form of strength is behind thee, thy crown is upon thy head, thy head-dress is upon thy shoulders, thy face is before thee, and those who sing songs of joy are upon both sides of thee; those who follow in the train of God are behind thee, and the divine forms who make God to come are upon each side of thee.

God cometh, and Pepi hath come upon the throne of Osiris. The shining one who dwelleth in Netat, the divine form that dwelleth in Teni, hath come.

Isis speaketh unto thee, Nephthys holdeth converse with thee, and the shining ones come unto thee bowing down even to the ground in adoration at thy feet, by reason of the writing which thou hast, O Pepi, in the region of Saa.

Thou comest forth to thy mother Nut, and she strengtheneth thy arm, and she maketh a way for thee through the sky to the place where Ra abideth.

Thou hast opened the gates of the sky, thou hast opened the doors of the celestial deep; thou hast found Ra and he watcheth over thee, he hath taken thee by thy hand, he hath led thee into the two regions of heaven, and he hath placed thee on the throne of Osiris.

Then hail, O Pepi, for the Eye of Horus came to hold converse with thee; thy soul which was among the gods came unto thee; thy form of power which was dwelling among the shining ones came unto thee.

As a son fighteth for his father, and as Horus avenged Osiris, even so doth Horus defend Pepi against his enemies. Thou doest that which he doeth among the immortal shining ones; thy soul sitteth upon its throne being provided with thy form, and it doeth that which thou doest in the presence of Him that liveth among the living, by the command of Ra, the great god.

It reapeth the wheat, it cutteth the barley, and it giveth it unto thee. Now, therefore, O Pepi, he that hath given unto thee life and all power and eternity and the power of speech and thy body is Ra.

Thou hast endued thyself with the forms of God, and thou hast become magnified thereby before the gods who dwell in the Lake.

Hail, Pepi, thy soul standeth among the gods and among the shining ones, and the fear of thee striketh into their hearts. Hail, Pepi, thou placest thyself upon the throne of Him that dwelleth among the living, and it is the writing which thou hast [that striketh terror] into their hearts.

Thy name shall live upon earth, thy name shall flourish upon earth, thou shalt neither perish nor be destroyed for ever and for ever. Side by side, however, with the passages which speak of the material and spiritual enjoyments of the deceased, we have others which seem to imply that the Egyptians believed in a corporeal existence,[1] or at least in the capacity for corporeal enjoyment, in the future state.

This belief may have rested upon the view that the life in the next world was but a continuation of the life upon earth, which it resembled closely, or it may have been due to the survival of semi-savage gross ideas incorporated into the religious texts of the Egyptians.

However this may be, it is quite certain that in the Vth dynasty the deceased king Unas eats with his mouth, and exercises other natural functions of the body, and gratifies his passions.

Here all creation is represented as being in terror when they see the deceased king rise up as a soul in the form of a god who devours "his fathers and mothers"; he feeds upon men and also upon gods.

He hunts the gods in the fields and snares them; and when they are tied up for slaughter he cuts their throats and disembowels them.

He roasts and eats the best of them, but the old gods and goddesses are used for fuel. By eating them he imbibes both their magical powers, and their khu's.

He becomes the "great Form, the form among forms, and the god of all the great gods who "exist in visible forms,"[1] and he is at the head of all the sahu , or spiritual bodies in heaven.

He carries off the hearts of the gods, and devours the wisdom of every god; therefore the duration of his life is everlasting and he lives to all eternity, for the souls of the gods and their khu's are in him.

The whole passage reads: Unas is the lord of wisdom, and his mother knoweth not his name. The gifts of Unas are in heaven, and he hath become mighty in the horizon like unto Tmu, the father that gave him birth, and after Tmu gave him birth Unas became stronger than his father.

See Maspero, Recueil , t. The powers of Unas protect him; Unas is a bull in heaven, he directeth his steps where he will, he liveth upon the form which each god taketh upon himself, and be eateth the flesh of those who come to fill their bellies with the magical charms ill the Lake of Fire.

Unas is equipped with power against the shining spirits thereof, and he riseth up in the form of the mighty one, the lord of those who dwell in power?

Unas hath taken his seat with his side turned towards Seb. Unas is the lord of offerings, the untier of the knot, and he himself maketh abundant the offerings of meat and drink.

He that cutteth off hairy scalps and dwelleth in the fields hath netted the gods in a snare; he that arrangeth his head hath considered them [good] for Unas and hath driven them unto him; and the cord-master hath bound them for slaughter.

Khonsu the slayer of [his] lords hath cut their throats and drawn out their inward parts, for it was he whom Unas sent to drive them in; and Shesem hath cut them in pieces and boiled their members in his blazing caldrons.

The mighty ones in heaven shoot out fire under the caldrons which are heaped up with the haunches of the firstborn; and he that maketh those who live in heaven to revolve round Unas hath shot into the caldrons the haunches of their women; he hath gone round about the two heavens in their entirety, and he hath gone round about the two banks of the celestial Nile.

Unas is the great Form, the Form of forms, and Unas is the chief of the gods in visible forms. Whatever he hath found upon his path he hath eaten forthwith, and the magical might of Unas is before that of all the sahu who dwell in the horizon.

Unas is the firstborn of the first born. Unas hath gone round thousands and he hath offered oblations unto hundreds; he hath manifested his might as the Great Form through Sah Orion [who is greater] than the gods.

Unas repeateth his rising in heaven and he is the crown of the lord of the horizon. He hath reckoned up the bandlets and the arm-rings, he hath taken possession of the hearts of the gods Unas hath eaten the red crown, and he hath swallowed the white crown; the food of Unas is the inward parts, and his meat is those who live upon magical charms in their hearts.

Behold, Unas eateth of that which the red crown sendeth forth, he increaseth, and the magical charms of the gods are in his belly; that which belongeth to him is not turned back from him.

Unas hath eaten the whole of the knowledge of every god, and the period of his life is eternity, and the duration of his existence is everlastingness, in whatsoever he wisheth to take; whatsoever form he hateth he shall not labour in in the horizon for ever and ever and ever.

The soul of the gods is in Unas, their spirits are with Unas, and the offerings made unto him are more than those made unto the gods. The fire of Unas is in their bones, for their soul is with Unas, and their shades are with those who belong unto them.

The notion that, by eating the flesh, or particularly by drinking the blood, of another living being, a man absorbs his nature or life into his own, is one which appears among primitive peoples in many forms.

The Australian blacks kill a man, cut out his caul-fat, and rub themselves with it, "the belief being that all the qualifications, both physical and mental of the previous owner of the fat, were communicated to him who used it"; see Fraser, Golden Bough , vol.

To the great and supreme power which made the earth, the heavens, the sea, the sky, men and women, animals, birds, and creeping things, all that is and all that shall be, the Egyptians gave the name neter.

This word survives in the Coptic , but both in the ancient language and in its younger relative the exact meaning of the word is lost.

By a quotation from the stele of Canopus he shows that in Ptolemaic times it meant "holy" or "sacred" when applied to the animals of the gods.

Maspero, however, thinks that the Coptic nomti has nothing in common with meter, the Egyptian word for God, and that the passages quoted by Mr.

Renouf in support of his theory can be otherwise explained. The fact that the Coptic translators of the Bible used the word nouti to express the name of the Supreme Being shows that no other word conveyed to their minds their conception of Him, and supports M.

Maspero's views on this point. But side by side with neter , whatever it may mean, we have mentioned in texts of all ages a number of beings called neteru which Egyptologists universally translate by the word "gods.

The difference between the conceptions of neter the one supreme God and the neteru is best shown by an appeal to Egyptian texts.

Die thätige Kraft, welche in periodischer Wiederkehr die Dinge erzeugt und erschafft, ihnen neues Leben verleiht und die Jugendfrische zurückgiebt.

All these extracts are from texts of the Vth and VIth dynasties. It may be urged that we might as well translate neter by "a god" or "the god," but other evidence of the conception of neter at that early date is afforded by the following passages from the Prisse papyrus,[5] which, although belonging at the earliest to he XIth dynasty, contains copies of the Precepts of Kaqemna, written in the reign of Seneferu, a king of the IVth dynasty, and the Precepts of Ptah-hetep, written during the reign of Assa, a king of the Vth dynasty.

Prisse d'Avennes, Paris, , fol. See Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte , p. If, having been of no account, thou hast become great, and if, having been poor, thou hast become rich, when thou art governor of the city be not hard-hearted on account of thy advancement, because.

This work contains the hieratic text divided into sections for analysis, and accompanied by a hieroglyphic transcript, commentary, etc. This work contains a more accurate hieroglyphic transcript of the hieratic text, full translation, etc.

The following are examples of the use of neter: The passages from the pyramid of Pepi show at once the difference between neter as God, and the "gods" neteru ; the other passages, which might be multiplied almost indefinitely, prove that the Being spoken of is God.

The neteru or "gods" whom Unas hunted, and snared, and killed, and roasted, and ate, are beings who could die; to them were attributed bodies, souls, ka's , spiritual bodies, etc.

Of these mortal gods some curious legends have come down to us; from which the following may be selected as illustrating their inferior position.

Now Isis was a woman who possessed words of power; her heart was wearied with the millions of men, and she chose the millions of the gods, but she esteemed more highly the millions of the khu's.

And she meditated in her heart, saying, "Cannot I by means of the sacred name of God make myself mistress of the earth and become a goddess like unto.

The holy one had grown old, he dribbled at the mouth, his spittle fell upon the earth, and his slobbering dropped upon the ground.

And Isis kneaded it with earth in her hand, and formed thereof a sacred serpent in the form of a spear; she set it not upright before her face, but let it lie upon the ground in the path whereby the great god went forth, according to his heart's desire, into his double kingdom.

Now the holy god arose, and the gods who followed him as though he were Pharaoh went with him; and he came forth according to his daily wont; and the sacred serpent bit him.

The flame of life departed from him, and he who dwelt among the cedars? The holy god opened his mouth, and the cry of his majesty reached unto heaven.

His company of gods said, "What hath happened? When the great god had stablished his heart, he cried unto those who were in his train, saying, "Come unto me, O ye who have come into being from my body, ye gods who have come forth from me, make ye known unto Khepera that a dire calamity hath fallen upon me.

My heart perceiveth it, but my eyes see it not; my hand hath not caused it, nor do I know who hath done this unto me.

Never have I felt such pain, neither can sickness cause more woe than this. I am a prince, the son of a prince, a sacred essence which hath preceded from God.

I am a great one, the son of a great one, and my father planned my name; I have multitudes of names and multitudes of forms, and my existence is in every god.

I have been proclaimed by the heralds Tmu and Horus, and my father and my mother uttered my name; but it hath been hidden within me by him that begat me, who would not that the words of power of any seer should have dominion over me.

I came forth to look upon that which I had made, I was passing through the world which I had created, when lo!

My heart is on fire, my flesh quaketh, and trembling hath seized all my limbs. Let there be brought unto me the children of the gods with healing words and with lips that know, and with power which reacheth unto heaven.

And she spake, saying, "What hath come to pass, O holy father?

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